There are two quite different sides to Gann analysis, the deeply theoretical, seeking to understand the essence of the science behind Gannís market theory, the Law of Vibration, and the outright practical, looking for working tools and techniques that will help with applied trading. Though our greatest interest is in the cosmological theory behind Gannís work, and the universe in general, we also specialize on the practical tools that traders need to specifically analyze and trade the markets. Some Gann experts excel at theory, while others are simply practical traders who are less focused on ideas in deference to trading techniques. This category will specifically focus upon the books and courses that provide very specific and applied tools from Gannís toolbox used for real time trading. Some may explore deeper theoretical principles and some may just focus on pure trading tools, but this category will give working techniques to better fill the arsenal of any trader. We often recommend that new Gann students focus first on developing a practical trading ability, so that they can fund their future research with profits from their trades, and then also apply new insights from their theoretical study to their practical trading as they advance. This section will help to identify those most practical tools.
Dan Ferrera is one of the most respected market analysts and educators in the Gann field. For 20 years his works have been some of the most popular in our catalog. Aside from being one of the clearest interpreters of Gann, he also has produced his own advanced work, The Spirals of Growth & Decay, developed prior to his analysis and presentation of Gannís theories. For those seeking a solid, Masterís Degree level education in technical Gann analysis, we cannot recommend anything more highly than Ferreraís works.
Ferrera has written detailed course on every angle of Gannís work and provides a fast track into a deep understanding of each field of Gannís work as well as advanced topics in technical analysis. He has works on cycles analysis, Gannís Square of 9, Gannís Mass Pressure Charts, one on risk management and Gannís swing trading system, another on the details of Gannís complex geometrical and mathematical tools, one on astrological Bible interpretation, on teaching how to create yearly forecasts like his own yearly Outlooks, which give a prediction for each year, and more. If you are wanting to get a first taste of Gann and to save yourself years of hard work putting together his ideas, Ferrera is a perfect place to start, and walking through his series of fantastic is like getting a Masterís degree in Gann and technical analysis.
W.D. Gann Works
W. D. Gannís private courses represent the most important of all of Gannís writings, and go into much greater detail than his public book series, with which most people are only acquainted. They should be carefully studied in their full detail, as they contain the deepest insights into Gannís theories ever presented. Stock traders must be sure to study all the commodity courses and vice versa, since Gann often put techniques that applied to all markets in only one or another course.
We stock the complete collection of the works of W.D. Gann, both his courses and books. Our set of Gannís courses were initially collected and compiled by Dr. Baumring and Donald Mack in the 1980ís from dozens of original rare private course that were distributed by Gann throughout his career. Many people mistakenly think that Gann just wrote two courses called the Master Stock Course and Master Commodity Course. This couldnít be further from the truth! Each of Gannís ďcoursesĒ were actually small, ďsectionsĒ of a few pages to a few dozen pages, individually bound in paper folders. These various pieces were then compiled into different sets which he sold as various collections at different prices to different students over the decades. Some were more commonly sold to all students, while other were more secretive and sold only to close private students who often signed non-disclosure agreements, and paid exorbitantly high prices. It is these rarest pieces that make the difference between one collection and another.
The later courses Gann sold in the 1940ís and that he ďcalledĒ the Master Courses were nothing but various compiled collections of these smaller pieces, and would vary according to who purchased them and what price they paid, and were never set until after Gannís death when purchased by Ed Lambert. For instance, there are pieces that Gann advertised in the 1950ís as ďnewĒ like his Master Mathematical Formula for Market Predictions, or his rare #3 Master Time Factor Course which were never included in his ďMaster CoursesĒ, and similarly were never included with any of the Lambert Gann courses sold by Lambert or the Jonesí from the 60ís until now. So these ďmasterĒ courses are and have always been incomplete collections. Further, the Lambert Gann courses sold by Billy Jones through the turn of the century, were retyped and re-edited by Billy so that they did not provide the original unadulterated content that Gann produced, making them unreliable, edited versions. Our editions are exact facsimiles of the original copies sold by Gann, with no editing or adulteration of any kind.
Our 6 Volume set of Gannís Collected Writings was further supplemented by new finds of rare pieces, like those mentioned above, rediscovered by the Institute over the past 30 years since Baumringís death, and comprises the most complete and the only properly organized set of courses that are available. Gann has very particular sets that he sold only to his higher end clientele, placed in specific order to provide a particular logic to his work. Our collection maintains this order and includes a further collection of rare and historical courses, letters and private materials which make our collection the most complete and important collection available. Serious students of Gann should beware most ďsupposedĒ collections of Gannís writings as most are unauthorized, incomplete, and distorted representations of his work, and cannot be trusted. Our set it the most reliable set of Gannís unadulterated and most important work availableÖ
While W.D. Gannís own original work is a critical element for any Gann researcherís collection, most people will find Gannís work to be extremely vague, complicated and difficult to penetrate on their own. In our experience, it can take many years, if not decades for the ordinary analyst to, by themselves, digest and apply the deeper techniques of Gannís, without significant help by well-seasoned analysts and traders who have dedicated years to decoding and creating practical tools from Gannís techniques. This is why there is a fundamental and valuable secondary market of works presenting and developing Gannís ideas, and making them accessible to any trader. We believe that the best teachers in this field are not competitors, but are fellow contributors to an ongoing field of research, and that their work is mutually supportive and will provide expanded insights when more material is understood.
We maintain the largest collection of secondary works on Gann Theory of anyone in the field. Many of these books we publish ourselves, and are written by top Gann experts and experienced Gann traders from across the world. However, we also review works written by other Gann experts across the field, and add to our catalog any material we consider to be of high quality and importance from the global community of Gann analysts. With our experience in the field, we are well qualified and to provide a peer review of these materials, so as to filter out the best quality work from that of a lower caliber, and then present these to our clientele who demand the highest standards. So any book or course that you find in this catalog can generally be considered to be of the upper echelon of works on Gann analysis. We have new authors submit their research to us ongoingly, so that we are always adding new items to our catalog with fresh insights, alternative techniques or new ideas. In this way we are able to save our clients significant wasted funds in exploring the territory at their own cost.
Foreword From The Textbook Of Harmonics
A Translation Society Edition
By Hans Kayser
With this work, I offer those readers interested in a new philosophical direction (philosophia = love of wisdom, spiritual aspiration) a textbook for a field of study which, after existing in classical times under the name of Pythagoreanism, appeared only sporadically in later times, and currently has no existence in our modern worldview.
“Harmonics” comes from ̔αρμονικός (= harmonic), but its root is the verb ̔αρμόττω (= to put together, arrange). This arrangement, put together from tone and number, flowing out in a harmony of the world (cosmos), is the original concept of “harmonics” as Pythagoras and his successors understood it. The concept of “akróasis” (= listening), in opposition or complement to aisthesis (= viewing), which I first applied in my book Akróasis, initially serves simply to prevent the continual confusion of “harmonics” with the musical study of chords. But perhaps it will be better in future to use “harmonics” and “harmonic” more in the sense of individual harmonic investigations, “akróasis” and “akróatic” more in the higher sense of a general mentality pervading everything—just as the following Introduction is entitled “Akróasis,” while the book itself is called Textbook of Harmonics.
In most modern reference books, “harmonics” is explained simply as “the study of harmony,” i.e. the study of chords in music. This definition relates to our concept of harmonics only in that the chord, as a theorem, represents one of the many special cases of general harmonics (see §40). Only in the Schweizer Lexikon have I found an entry on “harmonics” in which the concept is explained speculatively with reference to A. von Thimus and my works (E. von der Nüll’s work mentioned there has nothing to do with harmonics in our sense). Harmonics is defined there as a “metaphysical rationalism”—not a bad definition, if one knows from experience how hard it is to describe, in a few words, a discipline that is in the process of rebirth. But this definition is too narrow, and is dictated by the understandable difficulty of classifying harmonics purely in terms of the history of philosophy.
Because harmonics, as I have attempted to reawaken and reestablish it in my thirty years of work based on Pythagorean sources (see the summary of my works at the end of this book), is not simply a philosophical speculation in the sense of a “metaphysical rationalism.” It is founded upon three pillars:
a) Upon scientifically testable conditions. These are the harmonic theorems of tone-number, psychophysical realities that we can prove in nature and in our psyche. This book is organized according to them. In this way, harmonics is a science.
b) Upon a progression of correspondences. But these correspondences do not occur in a series of vague analogies. Their roots are in the harmonic theorems, and through these they are verified. This way of thinking and investigating is no longer merely scientific, but takes place in a field of connections between material, psychic, and spiritual forms which, without reference to the harmonic theorem, appear to have nothing to do with one another. In this way, harmonics is a doctrine of correspondences.
c) Upon a system of value-forms which, conceived autonomously but confirmed by theorems and made universal in their meaning through correspondences, achieve symbolic character. Even individual theorems, and yet more so the value-forms, can become harmonic symbols. Their true domain is that of metaphysical, religious, and mythological forms. In this way, harmonics is symbolism.
If I nevertheless believed myself entitled to call harmonics a new philosophical direction, it was only in view of the renewal of the original concept of “philosophia,” as I defined it above.
Every major harmonic work, with its tone-number descriptions, tables, formulae, and diagrams, initially gives the impression that at least a great understanding of music theory and mathematics is required to comprehend it. This is not the case. To understand the most important fundamentals of harmonics, it is sufficient to know the multiplication tables and a few basic geometric and musical concepts—these latter are explained simply in this book for those unfamiliar with them. But in any case, the reader must work along with the book, carefully drawing the diagrams with a pencil and ruler, continually working out the tables himself with their simple tones and numbers, and hearing the tones for himself on the monochord; otherwise he risks getting out of his depth with the optical and acoustic apparatus that is fundamentally important for understanding. If he makes this effort, he will soon see the apparent complication of the tables, drawings, and diagrams resolve into a few very simple facts. Besides, it is precisely this working along, rather than simply reading and following intellectually, that builds those foundations from which harmonic image-concepts can begin to come alive in the psyche.
For the understanding of harmonic fundamentals, then, a standard secondary school education suffices. These fundamentals are, in any case, explained in the most elementary manner possible in the early chapters of this book. If the fundamentals later expand into the widest domains of knowledge, and reference is sometimes made to more complex things, this is requisite for an establishment of harmonics in those domains and is a concern of the individual disciplines in question. This “ektypics” does not itself affect the fundamentals, so the reader who lacks the relevant specialized knowledge should accept them as far as he understands them, and pass them by when he can no longer follow along. He will still find enough to encourage him to contemplation and study.
Those who are encountering harmonics for the first time in this book are advised, although this is not entirely essential, to read Akróasis, which was written after the completion of this book and published in 1946 (Basel: Verlag Benno Schwabe; authorized reprint, Gerd Hatje Verlag, Stuttgart, 1947).* There I attempted to give a brief, concentrated illustration of the study of harmonics up to this time. In the present “Textbook” it is perhaps best to read the Introduction after this Foreword, then §51, the Dialogue on Tolerance, in which an attempt is made to negotiate a universal harmonic “equilibrium.” Readers interested in specific topics, e.g. mythology and symbolism, should perhaps read §54 (Harmonic Cosmogony) after the Introduction, and then study the fundamentals from §1 onwards. Philologists and historians might prefer to start with §55 (Summary of a History of Harmonics), and then, if there appears to be “something in this,” to bite into the tough apple of specialized harmonic study. Here the Index is especially helpful, since its terms synthetically unify the same topic often discussed variously in the individual chapters, besides directly explaining some specialized terms or indicating the passages where they are explained.**
The musically versed reader should not confuse the concept of the “study of harmony” with “harmonics.” The latter does indeed use certain elementary expressions of the former, but otherwise goes entirely its own way, and in the process must incorporate many concepts that have nothing to do with the musical study of harmony. In a further sense, music is merely a special case, albeit the most important, of the artistic side of harmonics. In addition to music, there is a harmonics of every science, a harmonics of philosophy, a harmonics of religious symbolism, etc., and all these individual harmonic domains are unified by harmonics itself as an autonomous study, containing its own justification. The following Introduction will explain what this autonomous study is believed to be, and what its character is.
Those familiar with my earlier harmonic works will notice the greater extent and the comparatively broader foundation of religious-symbolic elements in this book. This is not the result of a change of view. If the insights I have obtained from editing the 13-volume collection Der Dom, Bücher deutscher Mystik (Inselverlag, Leipzig, 1918-25) also offer me the possibility of illuminating harmonic problems correspondingly, it still lies in the nature of harmonic symbolism itself to arrive repeatedly and often involuntarily, by means of its akróatic image-concepts, at the deepest matters of thinking, willing, and feeling. Because surprisingly simple interpretation for many symbols from the most ancient religions, mythologies, and cosmologies can be found through harmonic analysis, close attention is paid to the relevant historical sources. It is not my intent, in the sections in question, to put forward a new foundation of religion, or even to pontificate about matters of religious belief; each reader can draw his own conclusions from the content of these sections.
In paging through this book, some readers may be disconcerted by the hundreds of quotations and references from numerous domains of knowledge—in short, by the apparent accumulation of a vast quantity of stuff. In this regard, the reader is entreated not to let himself be duped. It is easy to cram knowledge without limit into one’s head, spit it out again in the form of books, and still remain a fool. The extreme diversity of the material treated by harmonics necessarily results in the vast scope of the literature quoted and discussed in it. But any scholar can see that despite the apparent vastness, there are great, often hardly forgivable shortcomings in the discussion of the specific domains in question, as well as in the bibliographies. Here I can only excuse myself by the fact that this work was written in the countryside during the war years, 1942-1944; therefore I relied mainly on my notes from earlier years and my own library. It will not be hard for a mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, literary historian, mythologist, architect, etc., to fill in what is missing from his own specialized knowledge. As for the universality to which every harmonic method of research inevitably leads, the reader is invited to read the discussion of this in §29.1.
The reference to so many disciplines could also give the impression that it is the main intent of harmonics to meddle without authority in the domains of other sciences. Nothing could be further from the truth, because every harmonist, through his work, is above all required to exercise precision and exactitude, and only then set free to meditate; thus he must have the greatest respect for specialization, in the best sense of the word. Finally his science, harmonics, is fundamentally a discipline which must be learned and studied like any other. And if harmonics looks in every possible direction to support its views, if it uses various disciplines to support its insights, occasionally expressing conflicting viewpoints—well, every science does that, and without that there would be no science, let alone philosophy.
From the specialized philosophical point of view, harmonics has been reproached for not caring about the “continuity” of the development of philosophy since Plato and Aristotle. It is true that the Pythagorean approach to tone-number, and the forms and laws given by it, offer modern harmonists a wealth of autonomous possibilities for research, which can stand perfectly well by themselves outside the development of philosophy up to now. If specialized philosophy has neglected the possibility of this Pythagorean approach or left its “material” evaluation (derivation of the qualitative tone-ratios from the quantitative number-ratios) to the exact sciences, that is its own problem. But to conclude from this that modern harmonics ignores, belittles, overlooks, or arrogantly looks down on the great philosophical achievements as realized in the systems of their propounding geniuses: that violates not only sound “harmonious” understanding but above all the tolerance, the respect for every effort, and the quiet listening to everything existing, to which every harmonist is accustomed and trained in the course of his work. Our motto here is “suum cuique”: to each his own! Let us till our ground as we believe to be proper; in any case we will look ungrudgingly and with great empathy upon the fields and meadows that flower and bear fruit around us!
The tools of the harmonist include a lead pencil, colored pencils, black ink and a few colored inks, a ruler, a square, an accurate compass, a protractor, lots of paper, especially millimeter paper and simple squared paper, and, most importantly, a monochord. As §1 shows, one can easily build this oneself, or have one built. To have this done will cost less than the average violin, which is a necessary purchase for anyone who wants to learn to play the violin.
Harmonics is concerned with the inner development of the harmonic scholar as a self-sufficient and individually validated person. We stand facing the inevitable destiny of ever more overpowering collectivism. The demands made on the individual by a profession, his duties to society, the ever growing difficulty of quiet self-reflection amidst the din of modern times, will require strong counterweights lest unfettered depersonalization drive humanity into a universal ant-like existence. One of these counterweights can be the harmonist’s silent work for himself, without any aspiration to the outside. Just a small room, a table, a chair, and a monochord within reach: here, immersing oneself in harmonic problems, meditating upon the diagrams and tables one has drawn, upon each fine and subtle tone of the scales, chords, melodies, and rhythms—those who are called to this will become creators of a music without notes, which is sheer anachronism in contrast to the greater part of our so-called modern music! All this imparts, to those who know how to “hear,” a harmonic state of soul and spirit that will automatically affect the conduct of the entire person in his professional and exterior life. There could be harmonists in all professions, classes, countries, and peoples. They would hold no conventions, found no orders, choose no presidents, build no temples, hardly become outwardly apparent, and exchange their viewpoints and works only among themselves, in free unification. And since they would have learned to “hear,” they would also know to “speak” at the right time and place, that is, they would try to radiate the atmosphere of their mentality as far as possible. Harmonics thus understood as a self-orientation of modern people, pressured from all sides, is not a flight from reality, but an immersion in it, a listening into reality and the nature of things (see H. Augustin: “Von der Anhörung der Welt” in Schweizer Rundschau, Jan. 1947). Anyone who has worked harmonically in this way knows that a clean and pure breeze blows within “akróasis” which he can breathe freely, and that humanity, tolerance, and respect is the great three-pointed star that he gains in his work.
This book is arranged so as to treat the realm of harmonic material successively, following the evolution of the theorems. Most things cannot initially be worked through exhaustively, and must be taken up later from different viewpoints. For example, the theorem of “enharmonics” appears in the following ways: (1) as definition, §20.2; (2) in the handling of the enharmonic scale, §39.4; (3) in the interval powers and constants, §45; and (4) as an independent section, §48. It is similar for many other theorems, concepts, etc., and for this the Index is indispensable as a summarizing thread. Especially, sections I through V of the Introduction, and §55 (Summary of a History of Harmonics), complement each other.
The reason why the bibliographies at the end of each chapter predominantly cite my own works is that many problems were discussed much more exhaustively there than is possible in this Textbook. Also, these earlier writings are the only harmonic works accessible today, besides Kepler’s Harmonice Mundi and A. von Thimus’s Harmonikale Symbolik. Furthermore, unifying all my harmonic works thus far (see their enumeration at the end of this book) through this “retrospection” will make things easier for the reader, all the more because Vom Klang der Welt, Abhandlungen, and Grundriß do not have indexes. Obtaining my other works (especially Abhandlungen, Grundriß, Harmonia Plantarum, and Akróasis, which was written after the completion of this textbook—the remaining stock of Hörende Mensch was burned in an air attack on Leipzig) is not absolutely essential for the understanding of this textbook, but will undoubtedly make the study of harmonics easier as a whole, and will broaden and deepen its understanding.
As a conclusion to this Foreword, I would like to thank all those who made the creation and publication of this book possible: the publisher, who took the risk of such a venture for purely idealistic reasons, the generous donor who made the printing possible, the friends who stood by me most disinterestedly in word and deed, my dear wife Clara, née Ruda, who took on the difficult and painstaking task of copying, and above all those friends and helpers who wish to remain anonymous, who made possible a year of quiet study in this island of peace, surrounded by the most terrible inferno in history.
Near Bern at the sixth wartime Christmas 1944 Hans Kayser
*Translator’s note: Akróasis: The Theory of World Harmonics was translated into English by Robert Lilienfeld (Boston: Plowshare Press, 1970), but is now out of print.
**Translator’s note: Regrettably, the time was not available for translating and including the Index in this first edition (see also the Editor’s and Translator’s Preface).
Dr. Goulden takes a different approach to market analysis than most normal traders and educators. As a Cambridge educated scholar, Goulden is interested in deep principles and in exploring the foundations and implications of both trading techniques and the systems behind them. Before he was ever interested in the markets, he was asked by a friend why Gannís tools and system are considered to be based upon metaphysical principles. He found this question intriguing and engaged in deep research in the field to answer this question. In this process he recreated a new set of tools based upon principles of Ancient Geometry and Celestial Mechanics. His tools are taken from the same sources as Gannís and are quite powerful, but are slightly different from Gannís, so that traders often use them as non-correlated cross-confirmation tools giving similar technical indications but from different perspectives.
His work is deep and has many layers of application and exploration that can be derived from it. His latest work on financial astrology, The Secrets of the Chronocrators, looks back to the astrological and astronomical systems of the ancients, reviving the more mathematical and technical astrology of the Great Masters of the medieval and prior times. Exploring principles like Spherical Astronomy and subtle movements of the Solar System, it seeks to develop a more advanced and scientific system of astrology determination as distinguished from the simpler forms that are generally known. It represents a new movement to re-explore the deeper scientific systems of the ancients that were lost in the press towards the development of a purely mechanical science.
Goulden is a superb educator and the most active Forum moderator that we have seen, with each of his Forums for his courses having 1000ís of posts with detailed questions and answers, deviling deeply into further and new fields of research beyond what is presented in his courses. His Online Forums serve as an advanced classroom where the details of his theories are discussed and elaborated and where students share their research and work with each other while overseen by Goulden, who continually presents new ideas and suggestions.
Hasbrouck Space and Time
One of our great historical discoveries is the Hasbrouck Space-Time Archives, a collection of rare research materials and forecast letters lost for over 30 years. This research develops a new theory of market influence based upon Solar Field Force Theory that was developed during the birth of the space age. The Hasbroucks were deeply connected to the esoteric and financial market communities from the 1920ís through the 1970ís, and contributed a new and recontextualized presentation of information taken from older original esoteric sources. They present a new field of study of solar phenomena, space weather prediction, earthquake prediction and market forecasting.
Muriel Hasbrouck was the inspiring force behind the research, which a foundation in Theosophy and trained as a classical pianist, she pursued an interest in original source works in astrology, through the turn of the 19th century into the early 20ís. She studies with greats like Walter Russell, Paul Foster Case, Aleister Crowley, and Israel Regardie within the esoteric fields. In the market realms she was close with many of the great analysts of her day like Edson Gould, Edward Dewey, Hamilton Bolton, SA Nelson, and more. She and her husband Louis produced a well-received forecasting letter for 30 years called Space Time Forecasting of Economic Trends, and are now quite famous for forecasting the exponential bull market of the 90ís and subsequent crash 50 years in advance! Their theories of Solar influence upon human and earthly experience through geomagnetic influences still lie at the cutting edge of scientific speculation.
Dr. Jerome Baumring
The work of Dr. Baumring is the core inspiration upon which this entire website is based. Baumring is the only known modern person to have cracked the code behind WD Gannís system of trading and market order. However, even further, Baumring rediscovered and elaborated the system of scientific cosmology at the root of Gannís Law of Vibration. There is absolutely no other Gann teaching that goes anywhere near as deep as Baumringís work, or that even so much as attempts to approach the core ideas developed by Baumring. This study is for those who are interested in the mysteries behind the markets and the ordering system behind the universe itself. This is the study of cosmological theory on its deepest level, and of the interaction between man and the cosmos in which he lives, explored through an examination of causation and propagation of forces in the financial markets.
Dr. Baumringís course program is not easy, and should not be approached without the willingness to commit at least a few years to the study. It is a long and detailed course, requiring the equivalent level of research and difficulty as most PhD programs, but in the field of Gann Analysis, which is not taught at any university. It requires many years of challenging work including the reading of many dozens (if not 100ís) of books required to develop the foundations needed to understand Gannís approach to the markets. It is a very serious study that should only be approached by those willing to dedicate themselves to intense thinking and vast research across many fields of knowledge including: astronomy, biology, physics, finance, cycles, wave mechanics, geometry, mathematics, astrology, numerology, number theory, numerous esoteric and alternative scientific theories, and much, much more. Baumring summarized his system by the term ďNumerical AstrophysicsĒ in an attempt to give a modern name to an ancient theory that Gann himself had discovered.
Of all the analysts and traders we have known, the most advanced have all come to their understanding through following the lead of Dr. Baumring, or through having gone through a similar and parallel study and path of research to his. His teachings represent the ďbest of the bestĒ of all material on Gann publicly available, but it will not give up its secrets to a mere superficial perusal. Baumring does not spell out simple explanations of how Gannís techniques work, but rather leads his students into the depth of the science behind the system, while slowly elaborating how the techniques build upon this deeper science. For those seeking a fast path to the application of Gann exoteric trading principles, this is NOT it! Baumringís work is not merely some market trading program, and indeed if approached this way may be found to be dissatisfactory.
Baumring himself often said to his students, ďIf you only are looking to make money, donít bother studying Gann, itís too difficult. Simply study swing trading systems, risk management and options strategies, and you can make all the money you want to make.Ē (Note: we have excellent books on these alternativesÖ) There are much easier and more direct methods to learn to effectively trade the markets than studying Gann. Those in more of a hurry to apply Gannís work to trading may want to begin with the work of Ferrera or one of our most applied analysts, like Prandelli or Gordon Roberts, and save the Baumring work for a later time to explore at your leisure.